Simple conjunctions

Simple conjunctions are:

va and or so that
zirâ because con because agar if
ammâ but vali but ham also
tanhâ just; only faqat only pas then
hattâ even ke that balke but

Bound conjunctions

We have “o” and “e” as bound conjunctions. Both are unstressed and are pronounced immediately after the word they follow. While “o” is as synonymous of va (and), “e” has several applications. Among others it corresponds to English “of” and thus forms the genitive:

Example Connected expressions Meaning
kif o ketâb e pedare javân (kif o ketâb) e (pedar e javân) the bag and the book of the young father

If a word ends with a vowel (except i), then a “y” is inserted before “e” and a “v” before “o”:

sedâ ye boland the loud voice xâne ye pedar the father’s house
metro ye Tehrân the Tehran Metro dâneŝju ye irâni the Iranian student
sedâ vo cehre the voice and the face xâne vo mâŝin the house and the car
metro vo otobus the metro and the bus dâneŝju vo ostâd the student and the professor

Compound conjunctions

There are also compound conjunctions:

agarce even though alâve bar in in addition
conânce if bâ vojud e in still
vagarna otherwise az in/ân ru hence
be in dalil therefore bâ in hâl still
az in jahat therefore; so banâ bar in consequently; therefore
az su yi / taraf i on the one hand az su ye / taraf e digar on the other hand
garce even though dar natije consequently

 Many compound conjunctions are formed with ke:

az ânjâ ke thus piŝ / qabl az in-/ânke before
pas / ba’d az in-/ânke after bâ in-/ânke although
bi / bedune in-/ânke without …-ing barâ ye in-/ânke because; thus; in order to …
be jâ ye in-/ânke instead of be ŝart e in-/ânke under the condition that
be dalil e inke because haminke as soon as
conân … ke so … that ânqadr ke so much that …
vaqt / mowqe’ i ke when az vaqt / mowqe’ i ke since; since then
be xâter e in-/ânke because zirâ-/conke because
dar surat i ke if be ŝart i ke under the condition that
harvaqt ke whenever harmowqe’ ke whenever
harjâ ke wherever hengâm i ke while; when
az baske so much dar hâl i ke whilst; while

Conjunctions and subjunctive mood

There are conjunctions which often, if not exclusively, require the subjunctive mood:

Be jâ ye inke beravad, neŝast. Instead of leaving, he sat.
Bedune in ke ciz i benevisad, raft. Without writing something, she went.
Be ŝart e inke naravi. Under the condition that you do not go.
Piŝ az inke ciz i beguyi, behtar ast, beneŝini. Before you say something, you should seat.

The versatile conjunction ke

The conjunction ke is not only a popular component of compound conjunctions. It can even take on different meanings and can therefore be considered a “universal conjunction”:

Dâŝtam dars mixândam, ke âmad. I was learning when she came.
Se sâl ast ke dar in tim bâzi mikonam. It’s been three years that I play in this team.
Be Tehrân ke residi, telefon kon. Call me as soon as you arrive in Tehran.
Ketâb i râ xâst, ke man nadâŝtam. She wanted a book that I did not have.
Be u goft ke man xaste am. She told him that I am tired.